A number of papers were presented at the 2016 International Poultry Science Forum held concurrently with the International Poultry and Processing Expo considered aspects of egg production. Summaries of the abstracts are provided for the benefit subscribers:
M15, ACCESSING THE IMPACT OF EGG SWEATING ON Salmonella ENTERITIDIS PENETRATION INTO SHELL EGGS. J. Gradl et al. Auburn University.
A collaborative study was undertaken at Auburn University, North Carolina State University and the USDA, ARS. The objective was to determine if condensation on the surface of an egg following transfer from a cold room to ambient temperature (“sweating”) contributed to penetration of Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) from the shell surface into the egg contents. After inoculation with a 108 SE suspension, eggs were transferred from storage at 4C to 32C for 80 minutes.
Shell rinse, shell emulsion and egg contents were enumerated. The recovery of SE was related to duration of storage with higher levels in shell rinses from the inoculated eggs during weeks 1 through 3 days post contamination. No SE was detected in shell emulsion or egg contents. SE on the shell surface declined sharply due to refrigeration over the duration of the trial.
It is possible that SE is deposited on the shell of eggs during passage through the coprodeum and cloaca in hens with colonized intestinal tracts. If the shell is intact, penetration will not occur. Thorough washing of eggs using a chlorine-based sanitizer should destroy any SE present on the surface under commercial conditions. Maintaining a cold chain at 42F should inhibit proliferation of any Salmonella present on the surface after washing. It is however necessary to detect and remove eggs with cracked shells since these represent a risk of egg penetration and if subsequently subjected to thermal abuse, could be a source of egg-borne infection.
M16, DETERMINATION OF THE ROUTE OF CHALLENGE AND EVENTUAL COLONIZATION IN SITES OF SALMONELLA ENTERITIDIS WHEN CHICKS ARE INOCULATED ON DAY ZERO. Chadwick, E. V. et al Auburn University
This trial was conducted on broiler chicks but the findings are applicable to replacement egg-laying pullets. Routes of inoculation comprised exposure to SE through feed, or day-old intra- tracheal, oral, cloacal and subcutaneous infection. On days 32 through 36, subjects were euthanized and attempts were made to re-isolate SE from various organs and muscle tissue. Irrespective of inoculation route, SE was recovered from all tissue samples. Feed inoculation resulted in the highest levels of recovery in the crop, cecum, cloaca and bursal tissue at levels of up to 80 percent. This study showed that feed is an important source of SE and presumably other Salmonella. Contaminated feed increases the probability of colonization of organs with Salmonella. Appropriate suppression of Salmonella in feed is therefore indicated using available approved organic acid additives.
P220, COMPARISON OF 3M MOLECULAR DETECTION ASSAY AND ANSR ASSAY FOR Salmonella COMPARED TO THE FDA BAM METHOD FOR RAPID DETECTION OF Salmonella FROM EGG PRODUCTS. Hu, L et al U.S.FDA and Oklahoma State University.
Rapid detection using the 3M Molecular Detection Assay and the ANSR Salmonella methods to detect Salmonella in egg products was as effective as the FDA Bacteriological Analytical Manual Procedure. It was concluded that with appropriate enrichment, loop-mediated isothermal amplification which selectively increases the level of bacterial DNA in a sample is effective to detect a range of Salmonella stereotypes including Heidelburg and Typhimurium.
NUTRITIONAL CONTENT OF EGGS
M80, EFFECTS OF FOUR DIETARY OILS ON CHOLESTEROL AND FATTY ACIDS COMPOSITION OF EGG YOLKS IN LAYERS at Heboola, A et al University of Ibadan, Nigeria
This study basically confirms established practice in the industry. Supplementation of layer diets with either palm oil, soy bean oil, sesame seed oil or fish oil had no effect on total egg cholesterol, high density- or low density lipoproteins. Sesame seed oil raised the level of low density lipoprotein and all oil supplements reduce total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs).
M22, CAN ACCEPTABLE QUALITY ANGEL FOOD CAKES BE MADE USING PASTEURIZED SHELLED EGGS? Singh, A. and Geveke, D. USDA.
Angel Food cake prepared from pasteurized albumen resulted in a 10 to 15 percent smaller volume than cake prepared from raw egg white. Textured profile assay of product showed that angel food cake made from pasteurized egg white resulted in physical changes including10 percent more firmness and 20 percent less adhesiveness than cake prepared using raw egg white. Based on the tests which were performed, angel food cake can be prepared from pasteurized shell eggs but with some alteration in physical attributes.
M94, COMPARISON OF PRODUCTION, EGG CHARACTERISTICS AND QUALITY BETWEEN MOLTED AND NON-MOLTED HENS FROM 73 TO 109 WEEKS OF AGE Crivellari, R. et al North Carolina State University.
Two brown-feathered and two white-feathered commercial strains were molted and production parameters were measured over the period 73 through 109 weeks of age and compared to non- molted controls.
There were no significant differences in egg production, egg weight or mortality in either molted or non-molted hens. Molted hens produced a higher percentage of USDA Grade-A eggs and more extra-large eggs than non-molted hens. Higher shell breaking strength, membrane integrity and Haugh units were determined for eggs derived from molted hens. The study did not consider financial returns from the two treatments. It should be possible to calculate the return after feed cost taking into account maintaining the flock during the molting period and the differential in revenue associated with grade, case weight and production.
T185, ENZYME COMPLEX IMPROVES PRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE OF LAYING HENS Montanhini, R. et al. Adisseo.
A meta-analysis was carried out on three trials involving cage-housed hens receiving a multi-enzyme complex (Rovabio® Advance P). The enzyme supplementation improved feed conversion efficiency by 2.3 percent mainly attributed to lower feed intake. A non-significant but numerical increase in egg production was observed but shell weight was significantly increased.
M115, EFFECTS OF DIETARY PROTEIN, ENERGY AND BETA-MANNANASE ON LAYING PERFORMANCE, EGG QUALITY AND ILEAL AMINO ACID DIGESTABILITY IN LAYING HENS Adhikari, R. et al. University of Georgia and CTC BIO Inc.
Inclusion of beta-mannanase for an eight-week period in diets for laying hens with two combinations of energy (2,850 kcal/kg and 2,750 kcal/kg) and crude protein, (18.5 percent and 17.5 percent) was evaluated. A significant interaction was observed between energy-protein combinations and the presence of enzyme in feed during three weekly intervals during the study. Feed intake was reduced with diets supplemented with beta-mannanase although there was no effect on egg quality parameters. Ileal digestibility of lysine and tryptophan was enhanced by inclusion of the enzyme.
P301 EFFECTS OF NSP-DEGRADING ENZYME ON THE PERFORMANCE OF LAYING HENS. Bigge, A. and Purdum, S. University of Nebraska-Lincoln.
This trial failed to demonstrate an improvement in body weight, egg production and egg mass as a result of including an exogenous carbohydrase enzyme to degrade non-starch polysaccharides in feed for laying hens.
P304, PRODUCTION PARAMETERS AND EGG QUALITY OF LAYING HENS FED DIETS SUPPLEMENTED WITH VITAMIN E, SELENIUM AND CANTHAXATHIN. Fernandes, M. et al. Federal University of Santa Maria, Brazil.
Diets fed to brown-feathered hens was supplemented with 6ppm canthaxanthin, 200mg/kg of Vitamin E or 0.4mg/kg selenium, individually and in combination applying a randomized design involving 5 treatments and 8 replicas of 8 hens. Supplementation with selenium alone or the combination with Vitamin E and canthaxanthin increased egg mass compared to the control diet. Yolk color was improved by any treatment involving canthaxanthin supplementation. Body weight feed intake, egg production yolk, shell and albumen waste were uninfected by treatment
P309 HYDROLYZED YEAST IN LAYING HEN DIETS. Koiyama, N. et al University of Sao Paulo, Brazil.
Hydrolyzed yeast was added to diets fed to laying hens at 1.0, 2.0 or 4.0kg per ton to determine the effect on performance. Supplementation during the period 48 through 68 weeks of age increased body mass, shell thickness but had no effect on Haugh units or yolk color. Feed intake was not affected by supplementation
PP38 PROTECTED COMBINATION OF SODIUM BUTYRATE AND ESSENTIAL OILS IN PULLET FEED. Puyalto, M. et al Norel, S.A.
Sodium butyrate and a combination of essential oils added to grower feed improved uniformity (98 percent vs. 78 percent) and suppressed clostridial necrotic enteritidis, reducing mortality to one percent compared to 4.5 percent recorded in the non-medicated controls.